What is a tariff?
Tariffs are an additional tax on Scotch Whisky or other products, charged on the import of goods in overseas markets.
Historically, tariffs have been used to protect domestic industries from foreign competition, and as a source of revenue for governments.
Tariffs are also used to create leverage in international trade disputes. For example, by imposing tariffs on Scotch Whisky, as the United States did in October 2019, governments can put pressure on other governments to negotiate a settlement and re-balance trade flows after they win a trade dispute at the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
So, when you read about how tariffs work, think tax.
Who pays tariffs?
Tariffs are collected by the national customs authority of the country into which the goods are being brought.
Who pays the tariff depends on the exporter’s contract with their distributors – and costs are often passed on to consumers.
The increased costs that tariffs cause can lead to a loss or reduction in exports and a loss of market share. This is because products paying tariffs can become more expensive compared to similar products in the same market. Since the tariffs on Scotch Whisky were implemented in October 2019, the value of exports of Scotch Whisky to the United States have fallen by 30%.
How are tariffs charged?
Tariffs are often set as a percentage of the value of the goods in question. For instance, the current US tariff on Single Malt Scotch Whisky is 25% – so if a bottle of Scotch Whisky that’s imported to the United States is worth $50, the tariff will be $12.50.
Are there any restrictions on setting tariffs?
The ability of governments to set tariffs is restricted by international commitments. Most major trading nations are members of the WTO and are subject to the obligations in its General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This sets a limit for the tariffs they can apply and the same tariff has to be applied to the same product, no matter where it comes from. This limit can only be exceeded in certain cases, such as under a WTO dispute.
The Scotch Whisky industry faces various tariffs around the world, including a 150% tariff on Scotch in India, to a 5% tariff in China. The SWA works to reduce tariffs, and other non-tariff barriers to trade, around the world. Learn more about that here.
FAQ: Tariffs news & commentary
SWA comments on suspension of US Tariffs
The SWA has reacted to the announcement that US tariffs on Scotch Whisky and other products will be suspended.
Scotch Whisky Tariff Losses in US Reach Half Billion Pounds
The Scotch Whisky industry calls on government to address aerospace subsidy violations as losses mount
SWA comments on UK government's new approach to US tariffs
Our Chief Executive Karen Betts comments on the new approach to tariffs signalled by the Department for International Trade
Industry Calls for U.S. and EU to End Trade Dispute Urgently to Save Jobs
17 associations representing beverage alcohol sectors have submitted comments in opposition to the U.S. government’s proposal to impose tariffs on distilled spirits, wine and beer from the EU and UK.
US Tariffs: SWA comment on latest USTR announcement
Read the latest comment from the SWA on the USTR's recent announcement on the possibility of new tariffs on spirits products.
SWA Calls for Tariff Elimination as US-UK Free Trade Talks Begin
The SWA has welcomed the formal trade negotiations that have begun this week between the UK and the US governments, and calls for removal of all tariffs on whiskies.
Scotch Whisky exports surge amidst backdrop of tariff uncertainty
Scotch Whisky exports grew by 4.4% to more than £4.9bn in 2019, with 1.3bn bottles exported to 180 markets.
SWA calls for end to damaging trade war as 25% tariff to US comes into force
The SWA is calling for support from the UK government following the imposition of a 25% tariff on US imports of Single Malt Scotch Whisky and Liqueurs.
SWA statement on US Tariffs for Scotch Whisky
The SWA responds to US import tariffs on Scotch Whisky.